Cascading Style Sheets


CSS offers a number of different units for expressing length: em, px, pt, cm, in, etc.

Some have their history in typography, such as point (pt) and pica (pc), others are known from everyday use, such as centimeter (cm) and inch (in). And there is also a “magic” unit that was invented specifically for CSS: the px. Does that mean different properties need different units?

No, the units have nothing to do with the properties, but everything with the output media: screen or paper.

There is no restriction on which units can be used where. If a property accepts a value in px (margin: 5px) it also accepts a value in inches or centimeters (margin: 1.2in; margin: 0.5cm) and vice-versa.

But in general you would use a different set of units for display on screen than for printing on paper. The following table gives the recommended use:

x Preferred Acceptable
Screen em, px, % ex
Print em, cm, mm, in, pt, pc, % ex, px

The relation between the absolute units is as follows:

1in = 2.54cm = 25.4mm = 72pt = 6pc

The so-called absolute units (cm, mm, in, pt and pc) mean the same in CSS as everywhere else, but only if your output device has a high enough resolution. On a laser printer, 1cm should be exactly 1 centimeter. But on low-resolution devices, such as computer screens, CSS doesn't require that. And indeed, the result tends to be different from one device to another and from one CSS implementation to another. It's better to reserve these units for high-resolution devices and in particular for printed output. On computer screens and handheld devices, you'll probably not get what you expect.

In the past, CSS required that implementations display absolute units correctly even on computer screens. But as the number of incorrect implementations outnumbered correct ones and the situation didn't seem to improve, CSS abandoned that requirement in 2011. Currently, absolute units must work correctly only on printed output and on high-resolution devices.

CSS doesn't define what "high resolution" means. But as low-end printers nowadays start at 300 dpi and high-end screens are at 200 dpi, the cut-off is probably somewhere in between.

There is another reason to avoid absolute units for other uses than print: You look at different screens from different distances. 1cm on a desktop screen looks small, but the same on a mobile phone directly in front of your eyes looks big. It's better to use relative units, such as em, instead.

The em and ex units depend on the font and may be different for each element in the document. The em is simply the font size. In an element with a 2in font, 1em thus means 2in. Expressing sizes, such as margins and paddings, in em means they are related to the font size, and if the user has a big font (e.g., on a big screen) or a small font (e.g., on a handheld device), the sizes will be in proportion. Declarations such as text-indent: 1.5em and margin: 1em are extremely common in CSS.

People rarely use the ex, whose purpose is to express sizes that must be related to the x-height of a font. The x-height is, roughly, the height of lowercase letters such as a, c, m, or o. Fonts that have the same size (and thus the same em) may vary wildly in the size of their lowercase letters, and when it is important that some image, e.g., matches the x-height, the ex unit is available.

The px unit is the magic unit of CSS. It is not related to the current font and usually not related to physical centimeters or inches either. The px unit is defined to be small but visible, and such that a horizontal 1px wide line can be displayed with sharp edges (no anti-aliasing). What is sharp, small and visible depends on the device and the way it is used: do you hold it close to your eyes, like a mobile phone, at arms length, like a computer monitor, or somewhere in between, like an e-book reader? The px is thus not defined as a constant length, but as something that depends on the type of device and its typical use.

To get an idea of the appearance of a px, imagine a CRT computer monitor from the 1990s: the smallest dot it can display measures about 1/100th of an inch (0.25mm) or a little more. The px unit got its name from those screen pixels.

Nowadays there are devices that could in principle display smaller sharp dots (although you might need a magnifier to see them). But documents from the last century that used px in CSS still look the same, no matter what the device. Printers, especially, can display sharp lines with much smaller details than 1px, but even on printers, a 1px line looks very much the same as it would look on a computer monitor. Devices change, but the px always has the same visual appearance.

In fact, CSS requires that 1px must be exactly 1/96th of an inch in all printed output. CSS considers that printers, unlike screens, do not need to have different sizes for px in order to print sharp lines. In print media, a px thus not only has the same visual appearance from one device to another, but indeed it is measurably the same.

CSS also defines that raster images (such as photos) are, by default, displayed with one image pixel mapping to 1px. A photo with a 600 by 400 resolution will be 600px wide and 400px high. The pixels in the photo thus do not map to pixels of the display device (which may be very small), but map to px units. That makes it possible to exactly align images to other elements of a document, as long as you use px units in your style sheet, and not pt, cm, etc.

The em (pronounced as it sounds), is a unit of relative font sizing in CSS. Specifying 2em tells an element to be twice the size of its parent element.

CSS inherited the units pt (point) and pc (pica) from typography. Printers have traditionally used those and similar units in preference to cm or in. In CSS there is no reason to use pt, use whichever unit you prefer. But there is a good reason to use neither pt nor any other absolute unit and only use em and px.

The magic unit of CSS, the px, is a often a good unit to use, especially if the style requires alignment of text to images, or simply because anything that is 1px wide or a multiple of 1px is guaranteed to look sharp.

But for font sizes it is even better to use em. The idea is (1) to not set the font size of the BODY element (in HTML), but use the default size of the device, because that is a size that the reader can comfortably read; and (2) express font sizes of other elements in em: H1 {font-size: 2.5em} to make the H1 2½ times as big as the normal, body font.

The only place where you could use pt (or cm or in) for setting a font size is in style sheets for print, if you need to be sure the printed font is exactly a certain size. But even there using the default font size is usually better.

The px unit thus shields you from having to know the resolution of the device. Whether the output is 96dpi, 100dpi, 220dpi or 1800dpi, a length expressed as a whole number of px always looks good and very similar across all devices.


Custom Font Faces

Pseudo Elements

A CSS pseudo-element is a keyword added to a selector that lets you style a specific part of the selected element(s). They are well documented by W3Schools, MDN, and CSS-Tricks.


Media Queries

CSS media queries allow you to modify your site based on a user's preferences (e.g. light/dark mode), or even characteristics of their device (e.g. size, aspect ratio).

A media query can be added to any stylesheet using the @media CSS at-rule.

Responsive Layout

Use the @media query to find out the width of the user's device, and style your CSS accordingly. I've included a sample of the selector for the dimensions of an iPhone 8, which I found from CSS Tricks' article about media queries for standard devices

Backdrop Filters

A common cool effect is to have a slightly transparent, cool glassy effect behind an element. This used to be very difficult to add, but is now rather simple thanks to the backdrop-filter property

Anchor Tag Offsets

If you have a navigation bar on your site, links to a heading's URL fragment might not jump the user to the correct location on the page. I fixed this problem by following CSS Tricks' article about padding offsets for links to header id fragments.

Responsive Design

Tap Targets

Notes on Google's article on Accessible tap targets

.container a {
  padding: .2em;

@media (pointer: coarse) {
  .container a {
    padding: .8em;

Scroll Offset

If you have a header with a fixed position, such as a navigation bar, use the scroll-padding-top parameter to fix the offset. Set its value to be equal to or slightly greater than the height of your fixed header.

html {
  scroll-padding-top: 98px;